Select the cell where you want to enter the formula.
Enter = and the cell to be referenced. Here, enter A4 as an example.
Press F4 three times to add a dollar sign to the column number. This fixes the columns of the reference cell.
+ (plus), then enter the cell to be referenced. Here, enter A5 as an example.
Press F4 three times to fix the column of the reference cell.
Press Ctrl + Enter to confirm, then press Ctrl + C to copy the cell.
Press → (Right Arrow key) to select the cell in which to paste the copied formula, then press Enter to paste.
Since the columns of the reference cells are fixed, copying formulas in the column direction does not change the reference cells.
Select the cell in which the formula with the fixed reference cell is entered.
Press F2 to put the cell in edit mode.
Press Shift + ← (Left Arrow key) several times to select the fixed reference cell.
Press F4 several times to make the dollar sign disappear and unfasten the reference cell. In this example, the absolute reference is removed by pressing F4 three times.
A condition in which the reference cell is not fixed is called a relative reference.
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